The hottest power industry in the world and the de

2022-08-26
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The world power industry and the development trend of power technology

Introduction

power electronics technology has developed into a complete and self-contained high-tech technology, and power technology belongs to the category of power electronics technology. Power supply technology mainly serves the information industry. The development of information technology puts forward higher requirements for power supply technology, which promotes the development of power supply technology. The two complement each other, resulting in today's booming information industry and power supply industry. From daily life to the most cutting-edge science, it is inseparable from the participation and support of power technology, and power technology and industry play a decisive role in improving the level of a country's labor productivity, that is, improving the output level of a country's unit energy consumption. In this regard, there is a big gap between China and the world's advanced countries. As a power supply worker, he should not only complete his current work, but also master the latest development direction of power supply technology and the latest development of related components and raw materials through various information channels, as well as the advanced thin-film technology, thick film technology, integrated technology at home and abroad. Only in this way can we design world-class power products. For this reason, some personal views on the current development trend of power industry and technology are discussed for peer reference and discussion

1. Rapid development to diversified technology

power supply equipment is used to realize electric energy conversion and power transmission. It is a product with high technology content, wide knowledge range and fast renewal. Nowadays, it has been widely used in industry, energy, transportation, information, aviation, aerospace, shipping, national defense, education, culture and other fields. In the information age, the above-mentioned industries are developing rapidly, which puts forward more and higher requirements for the power industry at the same time. Such as energy saving, electricity saving, material saving, shrinking, weight reduction, pollution prevention, environmental improvement, reliability, safety, etc. This forces power supply workers to constantly explore in the process of power supply research and development, and use various related technologies to make qualified power supply products to meet the needs of all walks of life. Obviously, the development of power technology will drive the development of related technology, which in turn promotes the development of power industry. At present, the leading products in the power industry include various linear regulated power supplies, ac/dc switching power supplies for communication, dc/dc switching power supplies, AC variable frequency speed regulation power supplies, electrolytic electroplating power supplies, high-frequency inverter welding power supplies, medium frequency induction heating power supplies, power operation power supplies, sine wave inverter power supplies, high-power high-frequency high-voltage DC regulated power supplies, green lighting power supplies, chemical power supplies, UPS Reliable, efficient and low pollution photovoltaic inverter power supply, wind solar complementary power supply, etc. The technologies related to power supply include high-frequency conversion technology, power conversion technology, digital control technology, full resonant high-frequency soft switching conversion technology, synchronous rectification technology, highly intelligent technology, electromagnetic compatibility technology, power factor correction technology, protection technology, parallel current sharing control technology, pulse width modulation technology, variable frequency speed regulation technology. It can be seen that the Chinese market pays great attention to circular economy, intelligent monitoring technology Intelligent charging technology, microcomputer control technology, integrated technology, network technology, various forms of drive technology and advanced process technology

2. Performance/price ratio is the eternal theme to win market share.

product price, performance indicators, brand effect and service life have always been the most concerned issues of users. Looking at several well-known power supply manufacturers at home and abroad and the world's top power supply suppliers, they are facing the same pressure, that is, price competition, performance competition, product excellence and even artistic competition. Especially in the information age, because the information network brings the possibility of ordering and purchasing to users, the product price has become increasingly open, forcing each power supply supplier to ponder a series of measures to reduce costs and try to improve the cost performance, To win market share

performance indicators that users are most concerned about

(1) electrical performance indicators

in addition to special power supplies, general linear and switching power supplies have dozens of indicators, but the most commonly mentioned indicators are output voltage accuracy, electrical adjustment rate, load adjustment rate, temperature coefficient, output ripple and noise, input reflected ripple current, input common mode noise current, protection performance and efficiency, etc. The above indicators must be delivered to the user after passing the test with qualified test equipment and standard test methods. It should be pointed out that all performance indicators should meet the requirements of users, and there is no need to pursue high indicators to increase the volume, weight and cost of the power supply invisibly

(2) reliability, safety and quality

quality is the lifeline of enterprises. Looking at the development history of Chinese enterprises since the reform and opening up, it shows that quality plays a decisive role in the rise and fall of enterprises. Especially after China's entry into WTO, power equipment will enter the international market. Everyone must comply with the common norms of international trade agreements and accelerate the pace of integration into the world. Enterprises must accept the certification of safety, quality system and other standardized specifications. Today's power supply enterprises must not understand quality in a narrow sense as the product quality of enterprises, but in a broad sense as the overall quality of enterprises. Therefore, enterprises should carry out quality certification according to ISO9000 standards, clarify their own quality objectives and quality policies, carry out quality education for all staff, put product quality through the whole process of design, production and user service, and produce high-quality products with advanced technology and quality assurance for supply to domestic and foreign markets

(3) pay attention to EMC design level

electromagnetic compatibility is a special discipline that studies the coexistence of various electrical and electronic equipment without causing performance degradation under the conditions of limited space, time and spectrum resources. It is accompanied by the development of high-frequency and UHF applications in radio electronics, and its output value is 20.8 billion yuan. The essence of electromagnetic compatibility is that, on the one hand, the electromagnetic disturbance generated by equipment or system should not cause unbearable interference to the surrounding equipment, nor should it cause unbearable pollution to the surrounding environment; On the other hand, the equipment or system should have sufficient resistance to electromagnetic interference from the surrounding environment. To do this, it is quite difficult. Designers must deeply understand the true meaning of EMC and the ways of interference through learning and a lot of practice, and take effective measures to design EMC. Such as: power on filter, adopt passive compensation scheme to effectively suppress conducted interference; Add various shielding measures to suppress radiation interference; RC absorption is added to the appropriate part of the circuit to absorb the switching peak; Various soft switching technologies are used to ensure that the switching devices are turned on and off under zero voltage and zero current, so as to reduce the serious electromagnetic interference caused by excessive current and voltage gradient; Reasonable design of printed boards and reasonable ground wire layout will reduce electromagnetic interference. In short, electromagnetic compatibility technology is developing rapidly, and users' requirements for electromagnetic compatibility will be higher and higher, which deserves the attention of power suppliers

(4) complete protection functions

at present, the power devices used in the power supply are expensive, and their control circuits are relatively complex. In addition, the load of the power supply generally contains a large number of highly integrated devices, which generally have poor resistance to electricity, heat and impact. Therefore, the protection of the power supply should take into account the safety of itself and the load. At present, there are many kinds of protection, such as polarity protection, program protection, overcurrent protection, overvoltage protection, undervoltage protection, overheating protection, etc. Because there are many kinds of power supplies with different uses, the requirements for protection are also different, and the specific protection settings should be determined according to the specific requirements. After the protection circuit is added to the power supply, it is bound to increase the components, which in turn will affect the reliability of the system. Therefore, it is required that the reliability of the protection circuit itself must be high, so as to improve the reliability of the whole system, and then improve the MTBF of the power supply itself. This requires strict protection logic, simple circuit and minimum components. In addition, it is also necessary to consider the maintenance degree of the failure of the protected circuit itself, Ensure the normal operation and high reliability of the power supply. 2.2 main ways to reduce costs

the main ways to reduce costs are as follows:

adopt advanced product design management mode and try to shorten the product R & D cycle

strengthen the quality awareness of all staff, put the product quality through the whole process of design and production, strive to achieve 100% one-time pass rate of products, ensure 100% contract performance rate and 100% customer satisfaction

the performance of power supply products should meet the needs of users. It is not necessary to excessively pursue high indicators and reasonably select components and raw materials to reduce costs as much as possible

attach importance to talent resource management and take the people-oriented approach. We should not only cultivate, respect and cherish talents, but also reasonably arrange and use them, effectively play their role, and never waste talent resources

increase market share and capital recovery rate with the maximum amount of information and credibility

3. High frequency, high efficiency, low voltage, high current and standardization are the development trends of switching power supply

3.1 in terms of packaging structure, it is developing towards thin and ultra-thin

the height of standard mold speed was 12.7mm (0.5 inches) before, which has recently dropped to 9.53mm (0.375 inches). General customers require thin package sizes of 7.5mm (0.295 inches), 8.5mm (0.335 inches), 10mm (0.394 inches). The overall dimensions tend to be internationally standardized, mostly 1/8, 1/4, 1/2, 3/4 and full brick structures, and the design of mutually compatible output terminals is becoming increasingly obvious. The internal control circuit of the module tends to adopt digital control mode. The non isolated dc/dc converter grows faster than the isolated one, and the distributed power supply develops faster than the centralized power supply

3.2 low voltage and high current

with the semiconductor process level, it will increase from 0.18 in the next decade μ M to 50nm, the minimum voltage required by the chip will eventually become 0.6V, but the output current will develop towards high current. According to market research, with the development of semiconductor technology, the trend of power supply demand percentage for various voltages is shown in Table 1. Table 1 power supply demand for various voltages

it can be seen from table 1 that the power supply voltage required by users will have a downward trend in the future, and it is estimated that the power supply demand of 1V and below will increase significantly in the near future

3.3 high efficiency

the application of various soft switching technologies, including passive lossless soft switching technology, active soft switching technology (such as zvs/zcs resonance, quasi resonance), constant frequency zero switching technology, zero voltage, zero current conversion technology, and the current synchronous rectification using MOSFET instead of rectifier diode can greatly improve the efficiency of the module at low output voltage, The improvement of efficiency makes it possible to realize the open power module without radiator. This kind of module is the trend of module development in the world today, and will be widely used. With the change of device performance, the power efficiency will reach 92% (5V), 90% (3.3V) and 87.5% (2V)

3.4 high current and high density

in 1991, high power density was defined as 25W output power per cubic inch, which increased year by year. In 1994, it was 36W per cubic inch, in 1999, it was 52w per cubic inch, in 2001, it was 96w per cubic inch, and now it reaches hundreds of watts per cubic inch. Worldwide, the high power density DC conversion module market is growing at an annual rate of 16.8%. The output current will increase to half brick 80A, 1/4 brick 5

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